African Lion!


Lesson 1 and 2:
Gold_Award.png
:) = check
Task
Check
Choose a well researched animal
:)
Explore wiki space
:)
Create a glossary
:)
Make a bibliography
:)
Describe role of de composer
:)
Examples of de composer with pictures
:)
List animals and organisms in your animal's habitat
:)
Describe your animal's habitat
:)
Draft out a food web
:)
Make poster and then take picture and paste it in
your science wiki page
:)
Define Ecosystem
:)
Find books about chosen animal
:)
Finish objective #9, 10, 11 and 12
:)
Finish the zoo advantage and disadvantages table
:)
Bibliography:
- Lion Facts
- Adaptation of a Lion
- Physical Adaptations of an African Lion
- Lion Article - WorldBook
- Lion Research Center - All about Lions
- Panthera Explanation

NoodleBib Bibliography:
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New Science Glossary:
Word
Definition
Adaptation
Make something suitable for a new use or purpose
Environment
The surroundings or conditions in which a person, animals or plant lives or operates
Decomposer
An organism; esp bacteria, fungi that decomposes organic material
Reproduction
The action or process of making a copy of something
Ecosystem
When a lot of different organisms are interacting in the same community and environment
Diurnal
Of or during the day
Crepuscular
Of or relating to twilight
Symbiosis
Interaction between two different species that live in close association
Internal
Of or situated in the inside
External
Belonging to or forming the outer surface of something
Parasitism
A symbiotic relationship that benefits both species
Mutualism
One species grows stronger by harming another
Commensalism
When one species is benefitted but the other is not affected
Invertebrate
An animal lacking a backbone
Amphibian
A cold-blooded vertebrate
Vertebrate
An animal with a backbone
Offspring
A person or animal's young

Burning Questions!
  1. What animals eat African Lions?
  2. What are some symbiotic relationships of an African Lion?

Interesting Lion Facts...
  1. Top Speed = 50mph (short distance)
  2. Longest Leap = 36 feet (11m)
  3. Distance in which roar can be heard = 5 miles (8km)
  4. Height = 1.2 m (Male), females smaller
  5. Length = 1.5m - 2.1m (Male), females smaller
  6. Weight = 150kg - 227kg (Male), females less
  7. Lifespan = 13 years


Lesson 3:

Common Name: African Lion
Kingdom: Animalia
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Genus Species: Panthera Leo

The reason why the African Lion is classified under the Panthera name. Panthera is a genus containing four well known species; the tiger, lion, leopard and the jaguar. Only the four Panthera cat species have the ability to roar.

african-lion-male_436_600x450.jpeg
African Lion


How do African lions interact?
Elephants usually do not disturb lions. Buffalo are not afraid of lions. Buffalo will not run away at the sight of a lion unless it sees the herd. Lions have to share territory with leopard and cheetahs. Lions will kill cubs of other animals to reduce the competition for their young. Female lions will follow the mother cheetah to carry food for their young. When the female lion helps the mother cheetah the cheetah cubs will run up a tree to hide so the female doesn't try to kill them. Lions will settle with taking other animals prey. There is a lot of prey after it rains because when it rains, grass grows and grass sustains prey.

How do African lions adapt?
African lions are the largest carnivores found in Africa. They belong to the cat family and they are the largest ones in the group. Their body is around 1.4-2 m long, with a 67-100 cm long tail. They are mammals who live in groups known as prides. Males and female lions can be easily distinguished by physical appearance and behavior. One of the lion's adaptation is their golden brown fur, it helps them blend into their surroundings. As they have this colour fur it is much easier for them to sneak up on their prey. Here are some other features that help a lion adapt to its environment:
  1. Their powerful hind legs helps them run fast so they can catch their prey.
  2. Their growl which warns other males to stay away from their cubs and the lioness.
  3. Hunting in packs, it increases the opportunity to catch prey.
  4. Their claws help them rip and tear the prey's flesh and meat.
  5. They have good eye sight which helps them hunt at night.
  6. Their sharp teeth for eating other animals.

How do African lions reproduce?
Lions usually become sexually mature at around the age of two to three years. When they are at this age the males go off in search of a pride of their own. The females become the breeding stock for the next generation of the pride. Some females will wander out of the pride and become nomads. Nomadic lions will mate, and even raise families. Lion mating is not much different from any other cat. During mating, the male and female are together constantly, and they usually do not eat. The mating begins with growling, pawing and sometimes biting. When the female is finally in the mood, she lies down, and the male mounts her. Actual copulation takes 6-10 seconds, after which time the male gently bites the female's neck. The female then turns and bares her teeth at the male. The cycle repeats itself, maybe every 20 minutes, and a pair of lions can mate 40 times in a day! It is also known that a female may mate with more than one male during her estrus. The result is her cubs may have different fathers.

Motherhood:
Lions give birth 3.5 months after they get pregnant. They hide their cubs in thick bushes or thickets until they are old enough to join the rest of the pride when they are about five to six weeks old. Cubs basically survive only on their mothers milk until they are about six weeks old. Females that lose their litters return to estrus within a week otherwise they cannot begin to breed again until their cubs are about 18 months old. Mothers will fight to their death to protect their cub but will abandon starving cubs if they cannot provide for them.

Fatherhood:
Fathers not only protect and take care of their cubs from strange lions, but they catch prey for them that are too big for the mothers to catch. A buffalo or a giraffe carcass will easily feed a whole pride. Male lions will usually stay away from the motherhood groups when the cubs are small but when the cubs get older, they usually want to play with their fathers. Occasionally an adult son will join the fathers partnership and move with them to a new pride.

Animal
Classification
Classification
Lion
Secondary
Carnivores
Cheetah
Secondary
Carnivores
Gazelle
Primary
Herbivore
Zebra
Primary
Herbivore
Hyena
Scavenger
Carnivore
Vulture
Scavenger
Carnivore
Giraffe
Primary
Herbivore
Elephant
Primary
Herbivore
Sun
Producer
Source of Energy
Tree
Producer

Grass
Producer

Ant
Decomposer


African Lion Food Web Draft:

african_lion_draft.png

African Lion Food Web:

BEFORE:
african_lion_food_web.jpg

I had to re-do my poster because it was really crumpled which made it look unprofessional. In my next poster I am going to add some more producers, I am going to put some decomposers and add the habitat the my animal lives in. Also, to fit all these changes onto my piece of paper, I am going to make my poster bigger.

AFTER:
Fran.png
This is my final poster. In the process of making this poster I faced a few challenges. One of the challenges that I faced was, in the end, I realized that the arrows connected to my decomposer was the wrong way. To fix that, I made the place where the arrow was thicker and then draw the arrow on the right side. Also, in my old poster, you couldn't really see the lines because the actual poster was blue and my lines were blue. Now I can see my lines on my poster way more clearly and I think they stand out quite a lot.

I think that I could of improved my poster by adding Tertiary consumers. I also could of added, maybe, a few more decomposers. Also, at the end I took the short cut by cutting the 'African Lion Habitat' explanation with scissors instead of the paper cutter.



Definition of Food Chain: A food chain is when smaller animals or plants get eaten by bigger predators. A food chain shows the feeding relationship between each animal.

Definition of Food Web: A food web is when other sources of food overlap and link to more than one source.
A food web has three main elements...
  1. Producers = (plants, flowers, animals etc.) The producers are always at the bottom of the food chain.
  2. Consumers = (animals, humans, birds, fish etc.) The consumers cannot get energy from sunlight, they have to get energy from the producers or other kind of animal and plants. Primary consumers (ex. cow) eat the producers a.k.a herbivores. The secondary consumers are the organisms the eat the primary consumers a.k.a carnivores. Humans are called omnivores because they eat primary and secondary consumers.
  3. Decomposers = (bacteria, fungus, an organism etc.) Decomposers cause the mold on your food.

Difference between Food Chain and Food Web: In a food chain the animal or plant can only link to one other animal but in a food web the animals and plants can get eaten by more than one animal.

No matter how big or small the animal is, if that animal goes extinct then every other consumer can get affected and maybe get extinct too.

Me and Emu's BrainPOP test...




What is the role of a decomposer?
Some types of organisms are bacteria and fungi. Most decomposers are usually really small animals so they can not be seen by the human eye. Some decomposers, for example, fungi can be seen. Decomposers only eat dead things, and never eat any animal or any living organism that is alive. Decomposers are very important to any ecosystem. If they weren't in the ecosystem, the plants would not get any nutrients, and dead animals and waste would start piling up. The role of a decomposers is to break down dead organisms and recycle nutrients of those dead organisms.

These are some pictures of decomposers...
Microorganisms.jpeg
Micro organisms

bacteria.jpeg
Bacteria
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Earthworm



Lesson 4a; Environment of an African Lion:

What does Environment mean?
An environment is the surroundings of someone or something. An environment is basically anything you live in. It also means the entire natural life on Earth and the global Ecosystem. Environment means the physical surrounding which has an impact on one's action and growth. It's the interrelationship between human beings, their natural surroundings and the environment they create.

What is the environment of a Lion like?
Lions can live in cool climates and in the heat of semidesert areas. They do not like to live in thick forests. Most of them live in woodlands and grassy plains. Lions live where they find a supply of water and food. Lions used to live in Europe, the Middle East, India and most of Africa. But humans have killed thousands of lions as people settled into new areas. As a result there are no more lions living in the Middle East and northern Africa. Only about 300 lions still live in Asia - all in a protected area in the Gir forest of India. Lions still live in the eastern part of central Africa - most of which are kept in national parks or reserves where they are protected from hunters. Usually lions live in a cool climate of around 24˚C (75˚F) but they can still survive in hotter climates.

This is the African Lions current habitat...

Lion_550x377-1.jpg
Lion Current Habitat


As you can see, most of the African Lions live in the South East of Africa. This is because those areas consist of grassy areas. As lions are nocturnal they need this habitat with the Acacia trees that give a lot of shade to rest under. Lions also stay in this habitat because their prey can be found there. African Lions are carnivores which means they eat smaller or larger animals. To digest it’s food properly, the lion eats leaves and grasses because the greenery helps to cleanse the lion’s body.

Male lion resting under Acacia tree
Male lion resting under Acacia tree



An African Lion in grassy plains
An African Lion in grassy plains

Grassy plains
Grassy plains

Lesson 4b; Describe Ecosystem:

What does Ecosystem mean?
Ecosystem means when a lot of different organisms are interacting in the same community and environment. An Ecosystem is when there are many animals and organisms living in the same place. Ecosystems are interactions between plants, animals, and microorganisms that are working together as a functional unit. Humans have affected the world's ecosystems a lot. Every time we walk out into the wilderness or bulldoze some land to create a new parking lot we are seriously damaging the Ecosystems. We have disrupted the food chain, carbon cycle, water cycle and the nitrogen cycle. Some other organisms that live in the same ecosystem as lions that are not living are long grass, hills and just normal grass. I know that grass and land gets energy from the sun so they are still living. Real non-living organisms do not live in the same environment as a lion.


Lesson 5; Adaptations of a Lion:

The African Lion has very powerful legs which helps them run fast so they can catch their prey. This feature is internal. Also, as they hunt in packs, it gives them a higher opportunity to catch their prey. This feature is external but it is also a behavioral adaptation. Their claws are really sharp which helps them tear their preys flesh. Also, their eye sight helps them hunt at night because they have a reflective lens in their eyes. These features are external. Also, their really sharp teeth help them eat other animals. As they stay in packs they have more protection and the cubs feel more protected. This feature is also external. - http://designeranimals.wikispaces.com/The%2520African%2520Lion

The African Lions body is very muscular but with only a very small amount of bones compared to other large animals. The lions muscular body helps it move in a very graceful manner. Environmentally, the lions muscular body causes damage to the flora when it runs or steps on it. This is what provokes farmers to start shooting at the lions.

Anotated_Male_Lion.jpg
Diagram of a body of a lion with all the adaptations


Example of a 'Physical & Behavioral Adaptations' Diagram:
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Lion 'Physical & Behavioral Adaptations' Diagram:
Screen_shot_2012-05-15_at_3.01.06_PM.png


Lesson 6; Diurnal or Nocturnal?

What does Diurnal mean?
Of or during the day.
If you are diurnal, then the temperature is generally higher due to the suns heat and there is more light which means higher visibility for finding food. Usually, the animals that use their vision as a primary sense, are diurnal.

What does Nocturnal mean?
Of or during the night.
Being nocturnal makes you harder to see and get caught. It also means you avoid competition between with other diurnal animals. For example, cheetahs and lions. Cheetahs tend to hunt in the day while lions hunt in the night. This avoids competition and maybe some conflicts.

Are African Lions diurnal or nocturnal?
Lions are both nocturnal and diurnal , hunting mainly at night, dawn and dusk. Lions spend 16 to 20 hours/day resting, usually in a shady place, avoiding heat stress. Technically they are crepuscular, which means they feed at dawn and dusk, because they can hunt their prey in the late evening but also really early in the morning. What makes them nocturnal is the reflective lenses in their eyes.

Screen_shot_2012-05-16_at_9.10.51_PM.png
Female African Lion at Night



Lesson 7; Season:

African lions do not like to live in a very hot weather condition. But when it is a hot day, the lions tend to get shade from the Acacia tree. The African Lion's mating season occurs throughout the year. The lion gives birth to around 1-6 offspring with the average being 2 or 3. Since the gestation period is so short the cubs weigh less than 5 pounds (2.3kg).

African lions can survive pretty well in winter. In Africa, where the African lions live, winter is basically the rainy season. When it rains it means that all the vegetation and plants get to grow well. Then all primary consumers and herbivores can survive well. As African lions eat primary consumers they have a lot of time to actually catch their prey too. Also, as they have a really thick coat they will not get cold.

During summer, when it is hot and dry, the lions have a hard time. This is because all the plants are dying because of the heat and all primary consumers don't get that much food. Instead they all go towards water. As all primary consumers are all going away from the main area, lions have trouble catching prey for their families.

African Lion during Spring
African Lion during Spring

African Lion during Summer
African Lion during Summer
African Lion during Winter
African Lion during Winter



Lesson 8; Symbiotic Parasitism, Mutualism and Commensalism

What does Symbiosis mean?
'Symbiotic relationships/symbiosis is when two species live in close contact with each other.'
There are 3 main types of symbiosis, which are mutualism, parasitism and commensalism. An example of mutualism is when a type of bird, the Egyptian Plover, sits on a crocodiles tongue and eats the left over food stuck to it teeth.
  • Mutualism (Bird in Crocodiles mouth)
    • A symbiotic relationship that benefits both species.
  • Parasitism (Bacteria in stomach)
    • One species grows stronger by harming another species
  • Commensalism (Orchids on trees)
    • When one species benefits and the other is not affected.

00955.jpeg
Egyptian Plover in Crocodile's Mouth


This is an example of a symbiotic relationship between a crocodile and an Egyptian Plover. What this is, is the Egyptian Plover eats food off of the crocodiles teeth. This is mutualism because the crocodile gets his teeth cleaned and the Egyptian Plover gets food.

One symbiotic relationship of an African Lion is when they kill their prey. What they do is that they kill their prey and then eat it. The food that is left behind is given to the scavengers which are the hyenas and vultures. This is mutualism because it benefits both the lion and their prey.

African_Lion_hunting.jpeg This is an African Lion and it's cub eating some food. (Right)


Lesson 9; What features of an African Lion help identify what animal it is?

Body features of only an African Lion:
  • Silvery yellow to reddish brown coat color

lionafrican.jpeg
African Lion


Body features of other lions including African Lions:
  • Very muscular
  • Less bone mass then any other animal that is around the same size as them
  • Each paw is equipped with soft pads on the bottom
  • Extra bones in the toes
  • Sandy brown coat
  • Their sense of smell
  • Their hearing is slightly above average
  • Tassel at the tip of their tails
  • Their loud roar

images.jpeg
Lion


African_Lion_skin.jpeg
African Lion Skin


Lion_Skin.jpeg
Lion Skin


As you can see the main difference of an African lion is their fur color. The skin color of and African Lion is lighter then on a normal lion. Also, on an African Lion, the skin color gets lighter on the bottom of it's body. The mane hair of a lion is usually around 300 to 400mm long. The coat hair is usually from 20 to 40mm long.


Lesson 10: How are variations inherited or caused by environment?
Variations
Why?
Very muscular
To be able to run a lot and run fast to catch their prey.
Tassel at the tip of their tail
Used for balance (male & female) Used as a 'follow me' signal for the cubs (female)
Extra bones in their toes
For a wide range of motion.
Loud roar
To alert other lions of an individuals presence.
Hearing is slightly above average
To hear distant sound
lion_roar.jpeg
Lion Roaring



Lesson 11:
Classify organisms in your animal's environment according to
a) types of living things: animals, plants, microorganisms and fungi
b) vertebrate or invertebrate
c) types of vertebrates: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish or invertebrates: jellyfish, starfish, roundworms, segmented worms, molluscs and arthropods.
Zebra
Animal
Elephant
Animal
Cheetah
Animal
Gazelle
Animal
Giraffe
Animal
zebra_and_lion.jpeg
Lion chasing Zebra


elephant_and_lion.jpeg
Lion eating an Elephant


gazelle_and_lion.jpeg
Lion and some Gazelle


These are some of the animals that live in the same environment as an African Lion.
Bacteria
Microorganism
Acacia Tree
Plant
This is a microorganism that is in the African Lions environment. Most of this bacteria is in the animals' body's.


Lesson 12: What features of my body allow me to adapt so well to my environment?

Feature
Why?
How I adapt to the feature
Strong heart
Lots of exercise
I can do more things
Don't get sick easily
Eat healthy food and keep warm when its cold etc
I can do more things
Strong arms and legs
I have been playing sports since I was 4
I have stronger muscles and I have the ability to play more sports
Good eyesight
I have been using my eyes properly and not putting stuff inside them etc.
I can see far and close objects.

person_swimminh.jpeg
Guy Swimming
guy running.jpeg
Guy Running